Las Medidas de Coerción en la República Dominicana

Las Medidas de Coerción en la República Dominicana

Por William Alcántara

Vamos hablar sobre las "medidas de coerción" que han sido establecidas en el Nuevo Código Procesal Penal.

Las medidas de coerción o cautelares son instrumentos procesales que se imponen durante el curso de un proceso penal, con el objeto de restringir el ejercicio de los derechos personales o patrimoniales del imputado o de terceras personas.

Estas medidas son cautelares porque tienden a evitar los peligros de obstaculización del proceso y buscan asegurar el efectivo cumplimiento de la posible condena. Si luego de comprobada la culpabilidad del imputado en juicio, éste pudiera sustraerse al cumplimiento de la sanción; la justicia se vería burlada y la sociedad perdería la confianza en el Derecho.

Las medidas de coerción pueden ser de carácter personal y de carácter real. Las medidas cautelares de carácter personal tienen como finalidad asegurar la presencia del imputado en el juicio y evitar que obstaculice la averiguación de la verdad.

Las medidas cautelares de carácter real tienen como finalidad garantizar la reparación del daño y el pago de costas o multas. Las medidas cautelares sobre bienes sujetos a confiscación o decomiso tienen como finalidad asegurar que dichos bienes queden a efectos de prueba en el proceso.

El Articulo 222 del Código Procesal Penal establece como Principio General que "Toda persona tiene derecho a la libertad y a la seguridad personal. Las medidas de coerción tienen carácter excepcional y sólo pueden ser impuestas mediante resolución judicial motivada y escrita, por el tiempo absolutamente indispensable y a los fines de asegurar la presencia del imputado en el procedimiento. La resolución judicial que impone una medida de coerción o la rechace es revocable o reformable en cualquier estado del procedimiento. En todo caso, el juez puede proceder de oficio cuando favorezca la libertad del imputado."

Las Medidas de Coerción han sido definidas por el tratadista Cuéllar Cruz como "aquellas que pueden adoptarse motivadamente por el órgano jurisdiccional contra un presunto responsable de un hecho delictivo al estimarse dos aspectos esenciales: por una parte, la existencia de una imputación basada en la constatación objetiva de un hecho típico y en la probabilidad razonable de quien sea su autor; y por otra, en la fundada responsabilidad de ocultación personal o patrimonial del imputado en el curso del procedimiento penal, teniendo como finalidad única y legítima el garantizar los efectos penales y civiles de una futura sentencia condenatoria."

En la próxima entrega hablaremos de cuáles son esas medidas de coerción que en nuestros tribunales se están aplicando. (16 de Junio del 2007)

William Alcántara
Oficina de Abogados
Tel. 809-327-3384


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